At Dhen the waters from the CalMadow mountains nurture a stunning ecosystem before the stream reaches the Gulf of Aden.


Eastern Makhir coast-lands towards Bosasso are overgrazed and most trees have been felled for the unwise and ecologically disastrous charcoal export to UAE and Saudia. On the marine side illegal fishing by the international fisheries mafia and the pollution caused by dumping of toxic and even in cases nuclear waste along the heavily used oil-shipping route through the Gulf of Aden causes seriously negative impacts on the otherwise still intact marine ecosystems as well as on the livelihood of Warsangeli fishermen.


The Horn of Africa, separated from the coast of the Saudi peninsula is one of the most underdeveloped and poor areas of this world, whose people in addition and nevertheless have to suffer from the heavy footsteps of globalized economies and the geo-political interests of foreign nations. (photo: NASA)


Warsangeli Land with Cal Madow Range and Makhir Coast (photo NASA)






Stretch of coastline along the Makhir coast of the Warsangeli Sultanate


Warsangeli Rockart


Euphorbia turbiniformis, a narrow endemic


Spiny-tailed Uromastyx princeps


The succulent milkweed Whitesloanea crassa (Asclepiadaceae), growing in northern Somalia, is strictly protected in the Warsangeli Sultanate. This plant is thought to be very rare, because individuals are found growing very far apart from one another and never in large populations.


The monstrous mounds of Pyrenacantha malvifolia (Icacinaceae) resemble huge boulders


Adenium obesum (A. somalense), a bottle tree in the Oleander Family photographed near Las Gorey in northern Somalia.


The fantastic forms of Dracaena trees (Dracaenaceae) on the slopes of the Cal Madow Mountains in northern Somalia. These mountains above the sea (Gulf of Aden) provide stunning views of the phantastic landscape in Warsangeli-Land.


The illegal charcoal trade, carried out by desperately poor people, but caused by the demand of rich
oil-states, goes on in most parts of Somalia. This despite the fact that charcoal from Somalia had been
declared Xaram (unclean) by several religious leaders from the importing countries like the UAE and
the Sultanate of Oman, who had been informed by an ECOTERRA campaign since 1991 of the
disastrous impacts on the environment caused by unregulated charcoal burning in war-torn Somalia.
However, the campaign is more and more supported by Somali journalists and NGO's as well as
local Authorities and shows positive effects in certain areas over the last years. But as long appaling
poverty prevails in most parts of Somalia the destruction of nature by local people can not be stopped